Lines pipes are a type of pipes that are used to transport materials across longer distances. The materials are usually liquids and gases in petroleum, marine and natural oil and gas industries. Since the line pipes have to handle different conditions such as elevated temperatures, corrosive ingredients, high and low pressures and so on, the pipes are made up of different special types of materials. There are specifications that are prescribed for water desalination and drilling applications as well.
The drilling industry needs pipes that accommodate the requirements for high tensile and high wear and tear properties. The shallow wells and drill holes can deploy lower tensile strength pipe grades such as E-75 or X-95, whereas the deep wells and drills might use the G-105 grade or the S-135 grade which are higher in yield and tensile strength. The water desalination is a process that involves sea water directly and to use high pressure and temperature to create steam and push water through. So these pipes have to be corrosion resistant to chloride ion and the different phases of the desalination plant have to be differently equipped. The different grades such as 304, 309, 316, 316L, 317, 216, 304N, 329, 26-1 and so on are used in different components of the desalination piping systems.
The line pipe grades are specified in the API 5L grading system. Each grade has a different yield and tensile strength and minimum elongation at room temperature. The grades are A, B and X42 through X80. Grade A has minimum yield strength of 30ksi and minimum tensile strength of 48ksi where the X80 grade has 80ksi of yield strength and 90ksi of minimum tensile strength.
Mechanical properties of line pipes
The line pipes range in dimensions. The diameter ranges from 2 inches to 48 inches. The properties are regulated under the specification 5L by the American Petroleum Institute. The pipes can only transport one type of material at a time and therefore they are specifically designed for crude oil, petroleum liquids, water or natural gas. There are welded line pipes and seamless line pipes as well.
Line pipes need to have special mechanical properties varying with the applications. Water desalination and drilling are entirely different applications with different requirements. The desalination plant line pipes require high resistance to salinity where the drilling line pipes need high tolerance to pressure. The desalination plant pipes are often coated with polythene to make sure that the pipes don’t get corroded from the outside. The drill line pipes are made up of tougher material that does not wear and tear easily. There are elements of fluctuating heat and different gases and liquids inside the drill pipes. So the pipe has to be able to tolerate a wide range of oxidation and temperature deviation.
The line pipes as desalination and drill pipes
Since lines pipes are made up of different material compositions that can cope with different environmental conditions, there is always a choice from a carbon steel pipe. There are varieties that have less carbon content with high molybdenum content that can withstand high chloride ion concentration. And there are varieties that have manganese, nickel and chromium that increase the yield and tensile strengths higher so that the pipes could withstand high pressures. Line pipes are also produced in welded and seamless conditions making them applicable in different phases of any desalination or drilling application. They are also cost efficient with the need for very low maintenance over time. Welding and installation is relatively easy on the line pipes as well. For these reasons, line pipes are used for water desalination or drilling.
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